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The correct answer is C.

OBJ-5.3: A primary vector for attacking applications is to exploit faulty input validation. The input could include user data entered into a form or URL, passed by another application or link. This is heavily exploited by cross-site scripting, SQL injection, and XML injection attacks. Directory traversal is the practice of accessing a file from a location that the user is unauthorized to access. The attacker does this by ordering an application to backtrack through the directory path to read or execute a file in a parent directory. In a file inclusion attack, the attacker adds a file to a web app or website’s running process. The file is either constructed to be malicious or manipulated to serve the attacker’s malicious purposes. Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most powerful input validation exploits. XSS involves a trusted site, a client browsing the trusted site, and the attacker’s site.

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