The correct answer is A.
OBJ-1.8: Passive reconnaissance combines publicly available data from various sources about an organization and does not use active scanning or data gathering methods. Vulnerability scanning is an inspection of the potential points of exploitation on a computer or network to identify security holes. A vulnerability scan is usually conducted to detect and classify system weaknesses in computers, networks, and communications equipment and predict the effectiveness of countermeasures. Patch management is the process that helps acquire, test, and install multiple patches (code changes) on existing applications and software tools on a computer, enabling systems to stay updated on existing patches and determining which patches are the appropriate ones.